Tuesday, February 1, 2011

EGYPT UPRISING – January 2011

Tunisia, Egypt, Lebanon, and almost the whole of Middle East is in turmoil. To acquaint our readers with the developments there we are reproducing the two articles from " Electronic Intifada" website.

Egyptians call for Mubarak's ouster in Cairo, 29 January 2011. (Olivier Corsan/Newscom)

Tens of thousands of Egyptians took to the streets of Cairo's Imbaba neighborhood, calling for the overthrow of president Hosni Mubarak, 28 January 2010. (Matthew Cassel)

EGYPT UPRISING – January 2011

All eyes are fixated on Egypt, where thousands of people have taken to the streets in an unprecedented challenge to the thirty-year rule of Hosni Mubarak. Since 25 January, escalating protests throughout Egypt, and especially in Cairo, Alexandria and Suez have called for the removal of President Hosni Mubarak and his regime. Security forces used tear gas, rubber bullets and in many cases live ammunition in an attempt to suppress the protests, as the government cut off virtually all internet and telephone communications to the outside world.

By 30 January, Egyptian medical sources and counts by the Al Jazeera network put the toll at more than 100 people killed and 4,000 injured. On 30 January, the Egyptian government withdrew the license and shut down the bureaus of Al Jazeera, which has the focus of attention throughout the Arab world for its live and uncensored coverage of the uprising. However, Al Jazeera and other networks, including the BBC, have continued to broadcast live from Egypt.

Egyptian and international journalists on the ground in Egypt continued to report on events in different parts of the country by Twitter (Twitter list of reporters in Egypt).

The Electronic Intifada editor and photojournalist Matthew Cassel is also in Cairo, reporting on the developments and documenting the uprising.

The uprising in Egypt came shortly after the popular protests that overthrew the US-supported dictator Zine El Abidine Ben Ali in Tunisia. Demonstrations have swept across the Arab world, with thousands taking to the streets in Jordan to call for the removal of the prime minister; protesters demanded the ousting of President Ali Abdullah Saleh, who like Mubarak and Ben Ali has ruled for decades. Thousands also marched in Algeria for a change in governance.

Meanwhile, thousands of people across the world have stood in solidarity with the people of Egypt. Demonstrations have taken place outside of Egyptian consulates and embassies in the United States, Europe, Turkey and elsewhere.

Governments meanwhile have reacted with caution. The United States and European governments, caught off guard, called on Egypt to engage in urgent "reforms," but stopped short of calling for Mubarak to step down. Arab governments have remained largely silent. Syria's Foreign Minister Walid Muallem, speaking on the BBC, said the uprisings in Tunisia and Egypt were an "internal matter." From the front lines of the Egyptian uprising
Matthew Cassel, The Electronic Intifada, 30 January 2011

It's been a long time coming, but change is on its way to Egypt.

In the working-class area of Imbaba in Cairo on Friday, 28 January, I and my companions joined a group of fifty or so protesters marching up and down the street. The crowd shouted "come down! come down!" to neighbors. Without even realizing that others were joining I looked back at one point to see that 50 had become 500, and not long after I couldn't see the end of the mass marching through the streets.

As we marched, the Egyptian police hiding in their armored vehicles waited until the march got close. When it did they fired tear gas indiscriminately. People fled, and bystanders, including old women and children in their homes, panicked by the suffocating fumes of the tear gas, which was all marked "Made in the USA."

The crowds dispersed, but only briefly. Moments later the mass was reformed and the march continued. Down one street and then another, it had no direction, no leadership. Just deep anger and frustration at thirty years of what everyone has been describing as a dictator whose corruption has destroyed the country. Despite the fact that they cannot communicate with each other now, nor could they organize freely or have access to a free media for thirty years, Egyptians from across the country have been unequivocal in their one demand: Mubarak must go.

Finally, when the march in Imbaba reached a certain point, the police decided it was enough. They formed a blockade and when the protesters neared, the gas began to fly. Non-stop tear gas -- even two days later I can still smell it on my clothes. People fled, and they returned. It was an organic uprising that could not be stopped, the likes of which I had only previously seen in one place: Palestine.

The intifada was an organic uprising when Palestinians said enough was enough. Without even having to think, people took to the streets to challenge the oppressive rule of their Israeli occupiers. They were killed, beaten, arrested -- but nothing could stop them. Egypt today is no different.

While it cannot be described as a foreign occupation, the oppression is there. And in both cases, the one supporting and financing the oppression is the same. Without the US government's billions of dollars to both Israel and Egypt, there would be no intifada. There would be no deaths now, there would be no thugs roaming the streets and reports of bodies being dumped on the side of the road. That's not to say without the US there would be a utopia, but without the US there sure as hell wouldn't be this.

Now US State Department officials are calling on the Egyptian government to refrain from violence and making statements that feign concern about Egyptian lives. If that was true, the tear gas would not say "Made in the USA," and a brutal dictator would not be supported with billions each year to oppress his people.

But US foreign policy that is becoming irrelevant, a failed imperialist ideology that people are standing up to. Resistance is taking over. And like in Imbaba, or Tahrir Square, or anywhere else, it's not resistance of any one color. Hostile media appear to be hoping, as they did for Tunisia, that it has an Islamist element.

It doesn't. The resistance is led by the people of this region, whatever their background may be. At Tahrir Square in central Cairo yesterday I saw young communist women chanting for Mubarak's ouster next to men who minutes later were on the ground praying. Like in Lebanon, resistance against Israel and US intervention has widespread support, even if the military aspect of such resistance is led by Hizballah, a religious movement. You won't find many Lebanese to tell you that they do not support resistance to Israel's attacks on their country.

And the resistance is spreading. Here in Egypt, it appears to be unstoppable. After thirty years of Mubarak's suffocating rule, the people are finally saying enough. There is hardly one place in the entire country where the dictator can go to escape the shouts demanding his overthrow. In response, he's cut off communication. The Internet is still down, so is SMS. Mobile phones are only working sporadically. Today, Mubarak's Minister of Information, who was supposedly dismissed on Friday in an attempt to placate demonstrators, came out and revoked Al Jazeera's press credentials and ordered a shut down of what's become the world's most important news organization.

What makes an unstable situation all the more unsettling is that people are not only unable to communicate with the outside world, but also with their friends and loved ones inside the country. And this was the government's tactic to try and terrorize its people even further and frighten them from going out into the streets in protest. It didn't work. On Friday hundreds of thousands came out around the country to take their demands for change into the streets.

Yet in Egypt and beyond, resistance is spreading. It's impossible to say when it started. In Egypt it was the killing of Khaled Said, the young man stomped to death by Egyptian police in June of last year Alexandria that brought protesters to the street on 25 January to protest the police and their dictator. Was it was the popular uprising in Tunisia that ousted that country's Western-backed dictator of 23 years that sent shockwaves of inspiration throughout the Arab world? Could it have been Hizballah's defeat of Israel during the latter's war on Lebanon in 2006? Or the failed war on Iraq that the US cannot escape? Or the Palestinian steadfastness in their decades of struggle to liberate their lands?

Regardless of what sparked the situation that exists today, Arabs are uniting in their resistance to Western interference in the region and its oppressive autocracies. As one Egyptian activist said to me yesterday, "They try to say that we Arabs are all different and we're disconnected. But look what's happening now: uprisings in Tunisia, Egypt, Yemen -- even Jordan! We are one, it's absolutely clear."

The people in Imbaba, who faced wave after wave of US made weaponry, fought back and refused to give up. After the first few hours protesters grew used to the tear-gas. I know because I was at their side documenting their struggle. I could feel the effects of the stinging gas less and less as time went on. I no longer had to run into alley to breathe fresh air after inhaling the poisonous fumes. The protesters bravely pushed forward until after almost six hours the police retreated.

This wasn't an isolated protest. It was only one of many happening around the country. Compared to other reports, it was actually one of the smaller ones in Cairo. Now, it's up to the world and those in solidarity with Egyptians to take a stand and demand that the killing end and the Egyptian people's grievances be met. The longer we delay, the more Egyptian blood will be spilled. With billions of US support each year, the Mubarak regime has had the resources and the time to develop well-armed and well-trained forces to repress those forced to suffer under his rule.

My taxi driver last night was in tears when he described to me how difficult the last thirty years has been for not only him, but every single Egyptian in every part of this vast country. "We want freedom, that's it," he told me. A simple demand, and one that we all have a duty to support.

Matthew Cassel is based in Beirut, Lebanon and is Assistant Editor of The Electronic Intifada. His website is

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